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In humans, female cells have 22 pairs of chromosomes, an active X chromosome (Xa) and an inactive X chromosome (Xi), whereas male cells have 22 pairs of chromosomes, an X chromosome and a Y …

Xu et al. – who are based at institutions in Guangzhou, Beijing, Houston, Stanford and Chicago –then turned their attention to the autosomes and discovered that the cell lines tried to maintain an equal number of all autosomes: in other words, cells tried to have two copies of every autosomal chromosome (an A=2 state) or three copies (A=3). Cells generally evolved from a state with two copies of each autosomal chromosome and two sex chromosomes, to the de-sexualized state which has just one X chromosome and a X:A ratio of 1:2, into a state with a duplicated X chromosome (that is, X:A=2:2) and then, on other occasions, a state in which there are two X chromosomes and three copies of every autosomal chromosome (X:A=2:3; see Unisex Adults B Elite LowTop Sneakers Diadora JaQnx

As expected the most common X:A ratio was 1:2 but, somewhat surprisingly, X:A=2:3 was the second most common ratio. Xu et al. then modeled their system and found, again to their surprise, that the different ratios werepredicted to have different fitness levels. Moreover, the cells were evolving towards a ratio of 2:3, irrespective of how long they had spent in the culture and whether they originally were normal or cancer cells. This probably happens to balance the expression of the genes on the duplicated X chromosomes and the genes on the autosomes.

Xu et al. suggest that the evolution towards a ratio of 2:3 may reflect these cells absolving themselves of some of the functions that cells need to perform in multicellular organisms ( Merlo et al., 2006 ; logo laceup sneakers Blue HUGO BOSS Zr4DS
); for example,if they had remained part of a multicellular organism they would not have been able to jettison superfluous sex chromosomes. The work is particularly interesting because such a unicellular state might lead to the high rates of cell division that are characteristic of cancer.

Evidence for such convergent evolution in cancer cells is growing ( Mens Deata Derbys Boxfresh 6iOXIkI
; Mens Stretford New Harley LFU 3 Derbys Strellson KYK4vF
). So, just as cancer cells evolve to disobey the constraints of multicellular life ( Merlo et al., 2006 ), the cells in a culture may undergo a form of reverse evolution to a unicellular state ( Chen et al., 2015 ). However, the fact that both normal cells and cancerous cells follow similar rules leaves open the possibility that the preference for the 2:3 ratio is linked to culture conditions, or the transformation method used to immortalize the normal cells, rather than any evolution towards single-celled status.

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Early Reviews: One of the Best Action Movies Ever?
by Christy Lemire | April 13, 2018 | Womens D Ophira E LowTop Sneakers Black Geox NQjGzyW

It stars a charismatic Dwayne Johnson, it’s based on an old video game, and it’s got explosions and CGI, so there’s a fair chance your kids will be interested in seeing Rampage this weekend. And as long as they’re at least somewhere in late elementary school, it should be fine. But for those of you who have younger children, or simply need a weekend in, Christy offers three primate-themed alternatives you can watch with the family.


Rampage (2018) 52%

Rating: PG-13, for sequences of violence, action and destruction, brief language and crude gestures.

Giant, genetically enhanced animals thunder across the United States en route to destroying Chicago, and only Dwayne Johnson – with a lot of help from Naomie Harris – can stop them. Yes, is exactly the kind of ridiculous B-movie that you want it to be. But it’s also extremely violent and intense, and will likely be too scary for most kids. Johnson stars as a primatologist who must team up with Harris’ geneticist to prevent a super-powered gorilla, wolf, and alligator from creating massive amounts of carnage. Many people do die, though, in their futile attempts at containing these freakish creatures. There’s a ton of gunfire and explosions. Much of downtown Chicago does indeed get leveled, placing countless numbers of people in peril. And just the sight of these animals brawling and roaring ferociously at each other will probably be too much for young viewers to bear. They don’t call it for nothing. (Also, the albino gorilla, who’s Johnson’s buddy in happier times, has a running joke with his trainer in which he gives him the middle finger.) But for kids around 11 or 12 and older, this movie is good, stupid fun.


I forgot to mention that I am doing 1000mcg injections of cyancobalamin, every other week. The Cerefolin NAC contains L-methylfolate 5.6mg, Methylcobalamin 2mg, and N-acetylcysteine 600mg, So, I’m taking 3500mcg per day (not including the bi-weekly shots). Of course, it doesn’t matter how much I take, because my body lacks enough protein (transcobalamin) to transport the B12. I am always hopeful that a solution will come along,

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Hi Joe, Thanks for the information, it helps to sort out what is going on. Regarding the bioavailability of various oral supplements, there is no conclusive evidence that MeCbl is taken up any better than Ado or CNCbl, and in fact 5 mg dose of MeCbl is around 1000 times the uptake capacity for VB12, so it is in vast excess. One could argue though that you would need AdoCbl as well as MeCbl. If you are MeCbl deficient, I don’t why anyone would prescribe 5-methylfolate instead of folate. 5-methylfolate is at the end of the folate cycle and builds up as an end product. It can’t go anywhere without MeCbl and so is not a useful analogue if you are MeCbl deficient. It cannot be converted back to Tetrahydrofolate without MeCbl, which you don’t have. It is curious about your increasing homocysteine levels as it would appear that you have enough/excess methionine for your needs and that you must be making SAM. Without MeCbl you can theoretically “move” Hcy to Cystathione, then cysteine with excess vitamin B6, which you may not be absorbing. I cannot follow the logic in taking N-acetylcysteine, as it will stop Hcy consumption/removal. i would be interested in hearing the logic if anyone has it. As for the mitochrondria, carnitine normally is formed from breakdown/conversion of trimethyllysine, and is used in fat metabolism to form energy from fat breakdown. If you don’t take your calories as fat you don’t need it. Thus you don’t need it for entering the Kreb’s cycle if you use sugars or amino acids as energy sources. As for loading your cells with VB12 (of either type) without the transporter, here you need to get the circulating concentration so high that it is non-specifically taken up from the circulation. This is sort of the theory behind the extra high dose oral supplementation idea. I don’t see that this is technically going to be possible from oral supplementation. The maximum absorbed dose is around 1% of that adminsitered (unless you have a transporter), so even a 5000 ug dose will only get 50 ug in. As this will not be on a VB12 transporter this will be lost so quickly from the circulation that it will barely have an effect. So yes injections or topical B12 are the way to go. These give a much higher bioavailability and so enhance your chances of uptake. The topical route will provide longer release with time, whilst the injectable route will give you a higher peak, but drop off very rapidly. I hope this is helpful. Cheers.


c) It seems a bit unfair to compare the parameterized category template model with a uniform category model. The category model has no contrast-sensitivity and thus gives a flat response across contrast in Statement Clutch FLOWER WITH BRUSHES by VIDA VIDA DfyRV0n
. How much difference would there be between models, if you just allowed the category model to be contrast-sensitive? Likewise, the category model does seem to step for phase coherence, but no description was given for this; is this because at the lower phase coherences the stimulus category cannot be discerned? Also, how is it that some of the category model fits show some decrease in response as a function of contrast for the preferred category? In general, it would be useful to move some of the supplementary material that describes the performance of other models (including for the RT data) to the main text, since the model comparisons are of central importance to this study.

4) IPS fit circularity. Despite the assurances in Methods, the top-down IPS model faces a bit of a circularity problem. The IPS region was found using a search process that sought signals that could account for task effects. It is therefore not surprising to learn ( Figure 4 , bottom) that these signals well fit the data. Indeed, the r=0.96 fit is a bit worrying in this regard and suggests the possibility of over-fitting. Here are some options to rectify: a) Explicitly describe the fitting as a demonstration exercise, not to be taken as independent evidence of the role of the IPS; b) Obtain data from a new set of subjects, using the IPS region identified in the initial set of subjects to replicate the result.

5) Consistency of model framing of parietal cortex. The parietal cortex is first modeled as the source of an attention signal that modulates VTC, and then also as an accumulator of evidence from VTC. Is this plausible, and can the fMRI data support this conclusion? For example, given high task difficulty, does strong activation of IPS imply strong neural activation to provide attentional control or weak but temporally extended neural activation to accumulate weak evidence?

6) Parietal cortex correlation analysis. The suggested effect of attention is posited to be a gain effect – yet when looking for the source of this gain signal, the fixation condition is subtracted off. If it really is a gain, subtraction would be expected to leave some stimulus-driven effect in the other conditions, and correlations to parietal cortex could be due in part to this residual stimulus representation.

7) Correlation is not causation. A correlation with parietal cortex and VTC modulation is reported and interpreted as a causative signal from IPS areas. But the analysis is a correlation; it does not prove which way causation goes.

[Editors' note: further revisions were requested prior to acceptance, as described below.]

Thank you for resubmitting your work entitled "Bottom-up and top-down computations in word- and face-selective cortex" for further consideration at eLife . Your revised article has been favorably evaluated by David Van Essen (Senior editor) and a Reviewing editor.

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