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Where does the category template in Equation 2 come from? Given that we do not have sufficient sampling of stimuli to directly estimate templates from the data (but see Figure 2—figure supplement 1 ), we adopted the simple strategy of constructing templates from our stimulus set. Specifically, we took the WORD and FACE stimuli at 100% contrast and used the first stage of the Template model to compute a V1-like representation of these stimuli. This produced for each category, ten points in a 63×63×8=31,752 dimensional space. We then computed the centroid of the ten points, producing a category template (example shown in Figure 2a ). Because the category template is constructed from the same stimuli used in our experiment, it is guaranteed that the Template model predicts large responses to the preferred category (forexample, using a category template constructed from the face stimuli guarantees that the face stimuli produce large responses from the model). However, there is no guarantee that the model will accurately account for responses to the other stimuli used in our experiment.

The Template model was fit to the fixation responses of VWFA and FFA. Model outputs were calculated for all ten images associated with a given stimulus type and then averaged to obtain the final model output for that stimulus type. To aid model fitting, the and quantities were pre-computed and pre-conditioned by dividing each quantity by the mean of that quantity across stimuli. After pre-conditioning, a variety of initial seeds for and were evaluated in order to avoid local minima. Specifically, we performed optimization starting from initial seeds corresponding to every combination of and , where is chosen from {0 .5 1 1.5 2 3 5} and is chosen from {.01 .05 .1 .5 1 5 10}.

(1) The predicts a fixed response level for stimuli from the preferred stimulus category (word for VWFA, face for FFA) and a different response level for all other stimuli (two free parameters, one for each response level). Category judgments provided by the subjects were used to determine category membership; for example, words and faces at 0% and 25% phase coherence were reported by subjects as ‘other’, and are hence not considered to be words and faces by the Category model. (2–3) We evaluated simplified versions of the second-stage normalization used in the Template model. One version, , omits the divisive normalization and thus characterizes responses as a simple linear function of V1-like normalized filter outputs (two free parameters, and ), whereas the other version, , omits the subtractive normalization (two free parameters, and ). (4) In , the first stage of the model is omitted and the template operation is performed on a pixel representation of the image, thatis, refers to the original image instead of the V1-like representation of the image (three free parameters, , , and ). (5–7) We evaluated the effect of using different templates in the Template model (each model has three free parameters, , , and ). uses a template consisting of all ones. uses a template generated by unit-length normalizing both the word and face templates and then averaging the templates together. uses a template generated by drawing uniform random values from the range [0,1].

The predicts top-down modulation of VTC by taking into account measurements of IPS activity. The model accepts as input the response in VTC (either VWFA or FFA) during the fixation task and the response in IPS during the stimulus-directed tasks (categorization, one-back), and produces as output the predicted response in VTC during the stimulus-directed tasks. Intuitively, the model answers the question: how much is the bottom-up response in VTC enhanced by the IPS when the subject performs a task on the stimulus? The model can be viewed as a formal implementation of the concept of stimulus-specific scaling (schematized in Figure 3b , lower right). Similar ideas regarding top-down scaling induced by the IPS can be found in previous work ( Kayser et al., 2010b ).

The IPS-scaling model multiplies the bottom-up response in VTC measured during the fixation task by a scaled version of the IPS response observed during a stimulus-directed task:

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I highly recommend the book “Could It Be B12” for all of you that have questions….it is a wealth of information. The author’s website is b12awareness dot o r g

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If you have the MTHFD gene, there is a possibility it could lead to pernicious anemia too.

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Thank you for the great post and information Dr. Kresser!

To those in doubt about the seriousness of B12 deficiency, I can tell you finding out the HARD WAY that you are deficient is horrible. In May 2007 when I was 30 I ended up in the hospital with a severe case a ataxia and nystagmus. I was in the hospital for 8 days, where I was initially diagnosed with MS. After almost every possible test available was performed on me (3 MRI’s, Cat Scan, Spinal Tap, blood tests every day, to name a few), they only thing that was wrong with me was a B12 level of 110, with sclerosis of the brain caused by the deficiency. Since then I’ve taken B12 shots every month, and have been much better. There was a period when I doctors were trying to wean me off of B12, but that caused me a severe metabolic imbalance, so I was back to B12 shots again.

Right now, after new B12 tests, it was discovered that even though with the monthly shots I take, my B12 level is still low (475), which dropped to (261) after 7 weeks with no B12 injection. So, in addition to being back to B12 shots (of the Cyanocobalamin kind), I’m also supplementing myself with sublingual Methylcobalamin. Hopefully this will increase my B12 levels back to normal (I hope at least to 600), while my doctors try to figure out again where in the process I seem to not be assimilating B12 (I’m a meat-eatrian, with no reason WHATSOEVER to be deficient).

Word of advice: The only reason why ((it seams)) I was not diagnosed with a B12 deficiency before, was because doctors had me labeled as having depression and anxiety, which was causing me to have low body weight -all bullshit!. They had me on medication which improved my mood, but physically I was still deteriorating. I had to end-up in the hospital for anyone to realize my B12 deficiency.

Anyhow, wish me luck! But seriously, if you’re vegetarian or vegan, or if you find yourself tired and achy all the time and unable to keep a decent weight, have your b12 level check -it is worth it!

Dr. Kesser: Are there any other tests I should demand from my Doctors? The only one I know they did, was Intrinsic Factor, and supposedly that one came negative. Any help would be appreciated!

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Carole says

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